Jurisdictional Programme: Indonesia

Project figures

Forest area
 8.6 Mha
Peatland area
 3 Mha
Supported communities
 1,300 villages

An extraordinary location for nature-based solutions

Indonesia is blessed with the third largest tropical forest in the world benefits from a a rich indigenous community culture and history, and an endemic and iconic biodiversity. However, some areas in Indonesia are among the most vulnerable regions in Southeast Asia for climate change (i.e. sea level rise, drought, and extreme weather).

The country’s economic model was however fueled by resource extraction, and the vast distribution of licenses for logging, timber plantation, palm oil, mining put around 30% of the province’s nature at risk, with expected CO2 emissions levels around 400Mt in 2020.

A green growth agenda and economic framework for the whole of Indonesia were developed and presented at COP in Durban 2011. The goal was to promote and enable economic and social development, whilst ensuring environmental protection and delivering substantial climate results and high quality emission reductions (ER).

The Green Growth Agenda

Land tenure and productivity: Reduce use of fire for land-clearance by providing land tenure, livelihood training, education and awareness, and disincentives for forest clearance.

Integrated spatial planning: Integrate carbon spatial data into tools, maps and processes for spatial planning, license granting, and optimize the use of lands for economic activity and conservation.

Peatland rehabilitation: Slow or reverse the oxidation of degraded peatlands by re-wetting or replanting damaged areas.

Sustainable Forestry: Reduce forest degradation and accelerate re-growth through more sustainable logging practices, and enhance carbon density in timber plantations.

Land use optimization: Shift planned palm oil development from high-carbon, forested land to low carbon degraded land.

Environmentally sensitive mining practices: Slow growth in unlicensed mining and increase post-mining reclamation through enhanced monitoring and enforcement.

Offering broad range of nature-based solutions

Emissions removal:

  • Afforestation/reforestation
  • Forest management
  • Agroforestry
  • Peatland restoration
  • Coastal wetland and mangrove restoration
  • Soil carbon sequestration in croplands
  • Soil carbon sequestration in grazing lands
  • Biochar application

Emissions reductions:

  • Reduce deforestation or forest degradation
  • Reduce conversion, draining and burning of peatlands
  • Reduce conversion of coastal wetlands, mangroves


  • Reduced palm oil mill effluent
  • Cropland nutrient management N2O
Emission reductions definitions and quantification
High-standard validation verification by UNFCCC and Green Climate Fund

Indonesia has performed a systemic change in the forestry space in the last decade following COP UNFCCC mandate. The Government of Indonesia’s (GoI) actions and policies have led to significant emissions reductions (ERs).

The GoI suspended new licenses and improved primary forest and peatlands governance, and set up a Social Forestry program on forest management systems employed by local communities to improve their livelihoods and develop the forests’ sustainable potential.

Indonesia also calculated its National Forest Reference Emissions Level, and in line with COP UNFCCC requirements, reported made public its ERs results for 2013-2017 period. After conducting technical analysis, the UNFCCC validated and verified the ERs. Data on this can be found on the LIMA Hub.

Additionally, the Green Climate Fund performed a verification process consisting of baseline recalculations and verification of carbon elements, use of proceeds and non-carbon benefits.

The impacts

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